08 August 2023

Indiana Journal of Global legal Studies

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies


Developments and Issues in Consumer ADR and Consumer Ombudsmen in Europe


This policy brief outlines major developments and issues in consumer dispute resolution systems in Europe that were highlighted at the conference CONSUMER ADR: Delivering Fairness and Justice for Consumers, Business and Markets held at Wolfson College, Oxford on 18 and 19 March 2019.

The principal findings include:

  • There is considerable evolution in the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) schemes in some countries. A notable feature is that many of the ADR schemes are placing increased emphasis on integrating mediation into their pre-existing arbitration-style procedures.
  • Many countries continue to find it a challenge to get more businesses, especially small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) to adopt ADR schemes. Equally, many consumers are either unaware of ADR or imagine it to be an advisory service rather than an independent dispute resolution service.
  • There is a clear division between EU Member States that have sophisticated CDR schemes ― and, despite the differences between States, are improving their mechanisms ― and those States that have very undeveloped Consumer Dispute Resolution (CDR provision).
  • The national landscapes of ADR bodies continue to present problems, notably lack of full coverage and low consumer confidence in the current system.
  • Ombudsmen are the leading model of CDR, since they typically operate as part of the system of market regulation as well as the national system of dispute resolution.There is increasing realization that ‘consumer ADR’ is something specific and should have its own architecture.

Delivering Dispute Resolution: Recent review on the resolution of disputes in England and Wales


Delivering Dispute Resolution: Recent review on the resolution of disputes in England and Wales

Christopher Hodges

This Report summarizes the main points of two recent reviews on the resolution of disputes in England and Wales. One is a study by Professor Christopher Hodges and the other is a Report for the Welsh Government chaired by Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, former Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales. There are strong similarities between their conclusions.


  • The justice system has broken down in England and Wales. There are too many individual, competing, and overlapping options, which confuse potential users. The system needs to be reconstructed as an integrated single entity.
  • Many major dispute resolution pathways are inadequate in delivering justice and should be reviewed. An adversarial system inherently involves levels of cost and delay that defeat people’s desire or ability to reach just resolution of their disputes.
  • Experimentation with digitized procedures offers opportunities to modernize processes, with considerable benefits. 
  • But digitization can exclude a significant number of people and small businesses, who need personal assistance during, after, and especially before starting any formal process.
  • Every dispute resolution pathway should be reviewed against its ability to provide satisfactory answers to three questions:
  1. How do people identify and access information, advice, support, and assistance in solving their problems?
  2. How do we ensure that dispute resolution pathways are simple, cost-effective and deliver justice to people and organizations?
  3. How do we identify systemic problems, and address them so as to reduce risk of future recurrence?


Judged against these criteria, dispute resolution is best delivered through online platforms and modernized Ombuds or Tribunals, which are overseen by principles-based regulatory authorities, and which feed back extensive data on issues that can then be addressed by relevant interventions.

Reducing Online Harms through a Differentiated Duty of Care: A Response to the Online Harms White Paper


Reducing Online Harms through a Differentiated Duty of Care: A Response to the Online Harms White Paper

Damian Tambini

LSE media expert and Government adviser Damian Tambini argues that social media companies have a 'duty of care' to protect users from harms caused by content published on their platforms, in response to the government's policy proposals in its White Paper on Online Harms.

He argues that the government is correct to propose a new institution, Ofweb, with the power to regulate online content in order to combat the significant harms caused by hate speech, foreign interference in democracy, images of self-harm, and terrorist content online. Yet he also warns of the potential dangers in the approach of the White Paper, which could inhibit freedom of expression if the harms are not clearly defined.

The policy brief proposes a detailed distinction between harmful but legal content and illegal content, and that illegal content should be met with sanctions including civil fines.

Tambini tackles the central legal and constitutional problem regarding a new code of conduct for legal harms such as political speech that interferes in the democratic process – so-called ‘fake news’. He finds that such censorship-like functions would not accord with the European Convention on Human Rights free speech test on proportionality, legality (parliamentary oversight), and necessity in a democratic society.

Therefore, Parliament must decide if new offences and categories of content require new laws and liabilities and set standards for blocking or filtering the most dangerous content. Given the dynamic nature of online harms, the process for introducing new laws to reflect harms should be more efficient and evidence-based, with advice from the new regulator. 

24 July 2023

Vieillissement et droit : perspectives internationales


sous la direction de Bénédicte Bévière-Boyer, (membre de notre Conseil Scientifique), Xin Chen, Bérengère Legros.

De nombreux pays sont confrontés au vieillissement de leur population ou le seront prochainement. La dépendance physique et/ou mentale engendre des besoins auxquels la société doit faire face. Les besoins sont devenus exponentiels car la temporalité de la dépendance s’est allongée considérablement en raison des progrès médicaux. La prise en charge du vieillissement et, plus précisément, l’articulation financière société-personne âgée deviennent un défi pour les politiques publiques. Parallèlement, la préservation des droits et des libertés de la personne âgée, quel que soit son lieu de vie, domicile ou structure d’hébergement, doit être assurée. Chaque société est ainsi confrontée à la nécessité d’élaborer une politique réfléchie et efficace autour de la prise en charge de la personne vieillissante, autant en termes de prévention, qu’en matière de soins, y compris de fin de vie. Tout l’enjeu est de préserver la qualité de vie, tout en respectant l’autonomie dans un contexte de vulnérabilité.
Les politiques publiques ont été mises à l’épreuve à l’occasion de la première vague de Covid-19, particulièrement dans les établissements d’hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes, mettant en lumière toute la fragilité de nos aînés, mais aussi des systèmes de prise en charge mis en place, présentant d’importantes limites. Est ainsi donnée, à travers des échanges universitaires internationaux, l’occasion d’être réactif et créatif pour offrir de nouvelles modalités plus protectrices et respectueuses de la dignité des personnes vieillissantes. La réunion de chercheurs des continents asiatique, européen et nord-américain a ainsi permis une réflexion commune sur ces thématiques lors des colloques organisés en 2018 en Chine, d’une part, celui intitulé « Vieillissement et droit », qui s’est tenu le 18 mai à l’université de Renmin de Chine et, d’autre part, celui intitulé « Vieillissement et politiques de santé publique », qui s’est déroulé le 21 mai à l’université de Jia Tong de Shanghai. Elle donne lieu à la publication de cet ouvrage en 2020, témoignant de l’actualité prégnante de la thématique du vieillissement et, plus que jamais, de la nécessité d’offrir des modalités renforcées de sécurisation dans une optique d’entraide et de bien-être intergénérationnel.

CFP: Sixth International Conference of the Mediterranean Maritime History Network (MMHN) - 27-31 May 2024


(Source: MMHN)

The Centre of Maritime History in the Institute for Mediterranean Studies in Rethymnon announces the Sixth International Conference of the Mediterranean Maritime History Network (MMHN), which will take place at the Centre of Maritime History of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies in Rethymno from the 27th to the 31st of May 2024.

 MMHN has a long tradition of bringing together scholars who study the maritime history of the Mediterranean Sea and its linkages to the world. We welcome papers that explore the relationship between humans and the sea in all its facets: on the sea (seamen, ships, navigation, sea trade, war, piracy); around the sea (maritime communities, islands, port cities, shipping, shipping-related, fishing and touristic businesses); in the sea (fishing, marine resources, environment); because of the sea (maritime transport systems and entrepreneurial networks, maritime empires, international and national maritime institutions and policy); and about the sea (the maritime culture and heritage, the ideology, the myths and poems of a sea, the impact of the sea on art).

If you are interested in participating, we kindly request that you submit a title and an abstract of no more than 300 words, accompanied by a brief biographical note of 200 words, no later than October 15th, 2023. If you would like to present a panel (3-4 speakers), please send the individual abstracts into one file, providing a title and an abstract for the panel topic of no more than 200 words.

Submissions in English or French are welcome and should be sent to organizer.mmhn@gmail.com.

For any further question, please contact us at: secretariat.mmhn@gmail.com

Is Artificial Intelligence Capable of Writing a Law Journal Article?


Is Artificial Intelligence Capable of Writing a Law Journal Article?

In this article, we explore the potential of artificial intelligence (AI), in particular, ChatGPT based on GPT 4.0 model, to create articles in the field of legal studies. We analyze the pros and cons of employing AI in jurisprudence, specifically focusing on its capacity to adapt to intricate legal terminology, evolving legislation, and nuanced argumentation. The primary emphasis is placed on potential inaccuracies that may emerge in AI-generated text, as well as the underlying causes and subsequent ramifications. Furthermore, we discuss the copyright implications for works created via AI and propose possible solutions. In conclusion, we outline the current limitations and future prospects for leveraging AI in both legal practice and scholarly research. A substantial portion of the article is entirely generated by AI.

The Rights of Women in Comparative Constitutional Law

Edited By Irene Spigno, Valentina Rita Scotti, Janaína Lima Penalva da Silva

Through a comparative analysis involving 13 countries from Africa, America, Asia and Europe, this book provides an invaluable assessment of women’s equality at the global level.

The work focuses on formal constitutional provisions as well as the substantial level of protection women’s equality has achieved in the systems analysed. The investigations look at the relevant gender-related legislation, the participation of women in the institutional arena and the constitutional interpretation made by constitutional justice on gender issues. Furthermore, the book highlights women’s contributions in their roles as judges, parliamentarians, activists and academics, thus increasing the visibility of their participation in the public sphere.

The work will be of interest to academics, researchers and policy-makers working in the areas of Constitutional Law, Comparative Law, Human Rights Law and Women’s and Gender Studies.

Comparative Rights Vlog:Carla M. Reale – In(visible) bodies: disability, sexuality and fundamental rights

(In)visible bodies: disability, sexuality and fundamental rights

Carla M. Reale

The sexual sphere of people with disabilities is surrounded by stereotypes and misconceptions but it’s mostly absent from public debates and policies. Examining this topic through the category of fundamental rights implies the recognition of sexuality as a relevant component of humanity defined by the principles of equality, self-determination and the promotion of the person’s well-being. It means investigating the latest frontier of positive measures, unmasking the supposed neutrality of the law in the face of situations of injustice. This book explores some of the connected legal issues, such as sexual and reproductive health, forced sterilization, agency in the sexual sphere and sexual assistance. These questions are addressed from the perspective of comparative constitutional law, without forgetting the crucial role of international law. The book adopts an interdisciplinary approach, by creating a dialogue between legal knowledge and categories developed in social sciences, specifically sociology and political philosophy.


Carla Maria Reale is a post-doc researcher at University of Genoa within the H2020 project Gender-Ex. She obtained her PhD in Comparative Public Law from University of Trento in 2020. She is member of the Centre for Interdisciplinary Gender Studies of University of Trento and the BioLaw Research Group. Her research, rooted in comparative law and interdisciplinary, is mainly focused on gender, sexuality, disability and their relationship with the basic constitutional principles.

Slavery, Freedom Suits, and Legal Praxis in the Ottoman Empire, ca. 1590–1710


Beginning with the story of the Muslim youth Mehmed bin Abdülcelil of Tunis, this article examines the plight of Ottoman subjects abducted and sold into slavery within the Ottoman Empire and their efforts to regain freedom through Ottoman courts. Freedom suits (hürriyet davaları) were common in the seventeenth-century Ottoman Empire, so much so that contemporary legal praxis manuals (sukuk) always provided examples of how to document them, but they have never been systematically studied for this period in which slave ownership was extremely widespread and the legality of enslavement depended solely on religion and subjecthood. Drawing on a sample of seventy-nine suits from greater Istanbul and eleven sukuk manuscripts, this article considers how the trade in the illegally enslaved was concealed by the immense traffic in licit captives and how the theoretical protections of Ottoman subjecthood clashed with the practical challenges of how to prove it, exposing the gap between slavery as legal institution and slaving in practice. Whereas the vast majority of freedom suits ended in rulings in favor of the victims, most of the illegally enslaved probably never managed to have their cases heard or were turned away for lack of evidence.